They have unicellular, filamentous, colonial, or multicellular and plantlike bodies. They also possessed beta-carotene that is yellow colour photosynthetic pigment. This group contains about 6,000 described species. The exoskeleton consists of calcareous plates called coccoliths. Examples:  Chrysochromulina, Emiliania, Phaeocystis, Prymnesium, etc. Microalgae or microphytes are microscopic algae, typically found in freshwater and marine systems, living in both the water column and sediment. In the Plankton Unicellular Algae are found enormously. The other two major classes are Chlorophyceae (green algae) and Rhodophyceae (red algae). Majority of them inhabit in marine environments. These Algae consists of photosynthetic pigments eg. They are also is known as dark yellow to brown algae. They are unicellular or multicellular Eukaryotic organisms. There are different types of algal classification based on their characteristic. They are also known as brown algae or brown seaweeds. In this condition, they speedily become impenetrable and start assassination of many Algal species in the internal side of the bloom. Some species, such as the. This is the most modern classification scheme of algae. Ø Pigments in algae belongs to three major categories: (1). This indicates how strong in your memory this concept is. This phylum contains over 7000 recognized species. They contain pigments like chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. This indicates how strong in your memory this concept is. Algae possess the usual eukaryotic structures - Golgi apparatus, … Habit and Habitat Asexual reproduction occurs by fragmentation or producing spores. Algae - Algae - Classification of algae: The classification of algae into taxonomic groups is based upon the same rules that are used for the classification of land plants, but the organization of groups of algae above the order level has changed substantially since 1960. amzn_assoc_search_bar = "true"; Both algae and fungi form thallus. Start studying Algae Classification and Characteristics - Lecture Exam 1. Algae play a major role in aerobic treatment of waste in the secondary treatment process. They contain pigments like chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and beta-carotene. They are commonly found in aquatic environments including freshwater, marine and brackish water. amzn_assoc_ad_type = "smart"; amzn_assoc_placement = "adunit0"; Cells contain photosynthetic chlorophyll and other pigments. Most algae are aquatic but some grow in semi-aquatic and terrestrial environments. Algae are photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms. ii. Gametangia (reproductive organ) always single celled, if multi-celled, do not cover with sterile cell layer. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. The term algae mean Aquatic Plants but differ from the plants in lacking a well-organized vascular conducting system and in having very simple reproductive structures. They contain single lobed chloroplast with central pyrenoids. amzn_assoc_asins = "B00DQZ64YC,B004WYX4AS,B000A38F3Q,B000A2KAXU,B002C014JW,B0000ANHSZ,B002R0F9LG,B0012M2O90,B007HJFVNI"; This class contains about 1500 described species. This class includes about 41 described species. Algal Cells have eukaryotic properties while some algal species have Flagella. In the present chapter an attempt has been made to collectively put forward different classification systems as proposed. In which a vast amount of Algal Blooms raised at the same time. 2. Taxonomically Green Seaweed can be classified into two divisions:. amzn_assoc_marketplace = "amazon"; Algae possess the usual eukaryotic structures - Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, … Ø Different groups of algae have different pigment composition. Algae: Its Characteristics and Classification Algae are primitive plants without blood vessels and no real roots. The cell contains a silica cell wall which is known as frustules. They also contain carotenoids and xanthophylls as accessory pigments. Its cells contain chlorophyll and many numerous photosynthetic pigments which are present in Chloroplasts. Examples: Eustigmatos, Botryochloropsis,Pseudocharaciopsis, Ellipsoidion , Pseudellipsoidion, Nannochloropsis,Pseudostaurastrum,   etc. Practice. Green algae, brown algae, red algae, golden-yellow algae are main types of algae. They can almost grow anywhere where water and sunlight are present. They store energy as carbohydrate and oil droplets. Algal Examples. amzn_assoc_default_search_phrase = "shoes"; Phytoplankton also comprised of the vast number of Unicellular Algal species. In this article we will discuss about the Fritsch’s and Smith’s classification of algae. amzn_assoc_ad_type = "smart"; Cyanobacteria is also composed of a wide variety of bacteria species of different shapes are sizes that can be found in different habitats in the environment. Red algae belong to the class Rhodophyceae under the phylum Rhodophyta which is one of the largest phylum of algae. They store food as starch inside the chloroplast. Examples: Palmaria, Polysiphonia, Bangia, Corallina, Gelidium Chondrus,   Kappaphycus, Gracilaria,  Porphyra, Rhodymenia, etc. Since Linnaeus (1753) published “Species Plantarum” and classified algae. amzn_assoc_search_bar = "true"; B. Flagellar arrangement. There are about 180 known species under 13 genera. Examples: Micromonas, Ostreococcus, Pyramimonas, etc. amzn_assoc_marketplace = "amazon"; They store foods as pyrenoids outside of chloroplasts. Various Algal species are Saprobes, and few are Parasites in nature. Algae Characteristics. The are three main groups of algae being: Green algae; Red algae; Brown algae. They store food materials as starch and oil. amzn_assoc_marketplace = "amazon"; o cell wall composition and structure. Both algae and fungi form thallus. Blue Green Algae (CyanoBacteria) – Characteristics, Reproduction, Examples, Economic Importance, Classification, Phylogeny. The flagellate cell bears one or two flagella. kyanas, a dark blue substance; phyton, a plant) while other workers believed that … Green Algae Characteristics. Characteristics of Algae Algae are unicellular, colonial or large multi-cellular organisms. They are motile organisms which contain two parallel heterokont flagella. 500 worda on algae. amzn_assoc_default_browse_node = "672123011"; amzn_assoc_placement = "adunit0"; The term algae mean Aquatic Plants but differ from the plants in lacking a well-organized vascular conducting system and in having very simple reproductive structures. Features of this Algae group is given below: 1. But they are found in Aquatic environment. Ecologically, they can be grouped into the following types by their habitats. It is considered a Paraphyletic Group. Like the plants, they are the Photosynthetic organisms. •The current systems of classification of algae are based on the following main criteria: o kinds of photosynthetic pigments, o type or chemical nature of photosynthetic energy storage products o photosynthetic membranes’ (thylakoids) organization and other features of the chloroplasts. The cell wall consists of cellulose and polysaccharides such as agar and carrageenin. ii. They can store starch in characteristic plastids. These characteristics include the photosynthetic pigments, nature of photosynthetic reserve materials, the composition of cell wall or absence of cell wall, cellular and thallus morphology and reproductive behaviour. Phytoplankton is basically free?floating microorganism�s population. girls college, Kota myxa means slime; phyton, a plant) or Cyanophyceae (Gr. Classification of Green Seaweed. 1. Cell wall consists of cellulose, hemicellulose, and calcium carbonate in some species. Ø Algae also shows great diversity in pigmentation. 4. Blue green algae (cyanobacteria) has been given the status of class by some workers and they call it Myxophyceae (Gr. The body contains two apically or laterally placed flagella which lack tubular hairs. Cell wall composition. Photosynthetic species contain pigments like chlorophyll a  and chlorophyll d. They do not contain flagella; mitochondria with flattened cristae. Characteristics of Algae. They contain pigments like chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, carotenoids and fucoxanthin. Examples: Gonyostomum, Vacuolaria, Merotricha,  Chattonella, Chlorinimonas,  Haramonas, Psammamonas,Fibrocapsa, Heterosigma, and Viridilobus, etc. Algae are eukaryotic thallophytes. 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Almost all the algae are aquatic. % Progress . Whereas the above two classifications were proposed basing on some physical and chemical characteristics of algae, there is a third classification as proposed by Robert Edward Lee based on the evolutionary features. They have both unicellular and colonial forms. Algae Classification. They inhabit in both freshwater and marine habitats. Latin ‘alga’ means seaweed. They are both photosynthetic and heterotrophic organisms. Due to the above-mentioned condition, Algal Blooms raised. They bear one or more storage bodies, known as pyrenoids located in the chloroplast. They contain pigments like chlorophyll 'a', 'b', and phycobilins and they appear in blue green color. The mitochondria contain flattened cristae. The first part, Biology of Algae, contains 10 chapters dealing with the general characteristics, classification and description of different groups such as Blue Green Algae, Green Algae, Brown Algae, Red Algae, Diatoms, Xanthophyceae, Dinophyceae, etc. amzn_assoc_title = "Shop Your Products"; Alga is the singular of algae with a changing size from microscopic unicellular micro-algae (Chlorella and Diatoms) to large massive kelps that are usually a length extending in … amzn_assoc_ad_mode = "search"; Most of them inhabit in freshwater environment. The reserve food materials are carbohydrates or starch. They possess a counter-clockwise orientation of the basal bodies and an unusual mitotic spindle. Algae have simple, unicellular non-jacketed sex organs and have no embryo development. The cell possesses two anteriorly directed flagella with tubular hairs on one or both flagella. Progress % Practice Now. Green algae – Chlorophyceae. They store foods as oils or carbohydrates laminarin. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Due to this which algal species are formed complete algae mirror of its parents. Explores the many classes of plant-like protists and their characteristics. Some of the motile and non-motile algae may form a colony known as Coenonbium. Sexual reproduction can be isogamous, anisogamous or oogamous types. Algae can be classified as: Rhodophycophyta or red algae – Usually a marine form of algae without flagella, the pigments it contains are chlorophyll a, b-carotene, phycoerythrin, and phycocyanin. They are mainly marine algae, but some are also found in brackish- and freshwater habitats. Algae are almost ever-present throughout the world. Most of them inhabit in freshwater environment. The main orders are: Ectocarpales – e.g. Types of Algae Reproduction, Classification, Examples and Microscopy. The study of algae is known as phycology (phycos = seaweed). They also form a symbiotic relationship with plants or lichen-forming fungi. Listed below are some of the general characteristics of algae. They contain one or more yellow-green chloroplasts with pigments like chlorophyll a,  violaxanthin and β-carotene. They are also known as stoneworts" and "brittleworts". Start studying Characteristics of Algae, Fungi & Protozoa. With a few exceptions, most algae are autotrophic; they do not have vascular tissues. After germination, development starts haploid organism formed which have a single set of chromosomes. Red algae contain pigments like chlorophyll a, chlorophyll d, carotenoids, xanthophylls, and phycobilins. 3. Method of propagation 5. its classification and characteristics - 4634552 They are the most important photosynthetic stramenopile algae. Examples: Cyclotella, Thalassiosira ,  Bacillaria, Navicula, Nitzschia, etc. Often, they are commonly known as sea water planktons. There are about 12,000 to 15,000 living species. amzn_assoc_default_browse_node = "13900871"; amzn_assoc_placement = "adunit0"; They are commonly found in aquatic environments including freshwater, marine and brackish water. These are eukaryotic organisms, autotrophic in nature as have chlorophyll in their cells. Dr. Poonam Jaiswal, Lecturer Botany, JDB Govt. Phaeophyceae is divided into 9 orders by Fritsch. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Autotrophic or heterotrophic nutrition occurs. Also referred to as blue-green algae and blue-green bacteria, cyanobacteriais a bacteria phylum that obtain their energy through a process known as photosynthesis. 4. As the algae grow, they consume nutrients such as inorganic nitrate, inorganic phosphate, nitrite, ammonia, and ammonium from the water. They are either motile or non-motile. �Found in both marine and freshwater environments. Many algae are Photoautotrophic in nature and make their own food by the process of Photosynthesis. amzn_assoc_tracking_id = "mywebsit03240-20"; Division-level classification, as with kingdom-level classification, is tenuous for algae. Few species have delicate hairs on the flagella. Unicellular algae occur most frequently in water, especially in plankton. The study of algae is known as Phycology. In the Plankton Unicellular Algae are found enormously. Algae Characteristics and Classification Algae are non-vascular, primitive plants having no true roots. Phaeophyceae is a class of brown algae. Classification: F.E. The cell is non-motile which is enclosed by cellulosic cell wall. amzn_assoc_default_search_phrase = "Tablets"; Many algologists (phycologists) have proposed different classification systems based on various algal characters. Among them, 6,793 species are found in the Class Florideophyceae. This article examines, 1. They are mostly small and pale green unicellular coccoid algae. The body contains characteristics nucleus with condensed and banded chromosomes. Algae can be multicellular or unicellular. They primarily inhabit in freshwater, marine, and soil environments. The body possesses large and prominent nucleus and a contractile vacuole for performing osmo-regulation. Red algae are of high economic value, particularly Gelidium, from which agar is made. The major characteristics of taxonomic significance used in the classification of algae have been tabulated in Table 5.2. Examples:  Porphyra, Gracilaria, and Gelidium. More than 30000 species of algae have been identified. During sexual reproduction, well differentiate sex cells formed later on they mingle and Diploid zygote is produced which contain two chromosomal sets. They live as free living, symbiotic or parasitic forms. Flagella are arranged in the special microtubules pattern the pattern is �9?plus?2� of Microtubules. There are a couple more common and well-known groups of algae. Xanthophyceae or yellow—green algae e.g. They are a small group of unicellular heterokont algae. They can also live with Fungi in the Lichens and give the example of Mycorrhizal Association. Diatoms are photosynthetic organisms referred to as algae with a length/diameter of between 2 and 500 microns. And also comprised of numerous xanthophylls molecules that are yellowish or brownish pigments. amzn_assoc_region = "US"; General Characteristics of Algae Algae are eukaryotic organisms that have no roots, stems, or leaves but do have chlorophyll and other pigments for carrying out photosynthesis. Xanthophyceae or yellow—green algae e.g. In this case, photosynthetic pigments are chlorophylls a and chlorophyll b. Algae are unicellular, colonial or large multi-cellular organisms. Classification of Chlorophyceae (Green Algae) Important characteristics: They are commonly found in fresh water bodies(e.g., Ulothrix) or on soil, but a few are marine (e.g., Ulva, Enteromorpha). Chlamydomonas, Volvox, Oedogonium, Spirogyra, Vaucheria, Chara, etc. Algae are the simplest multicellular plants. The cell is covered with periplast with often elaborately decorated sheet or scale. Since Linnaeus (1753) published “Species Plantarum” and classified algae. Laminariales – e.g. Practice. Learn more: Lecture Note in Algae General Characteristics. 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Algae are chlorophyll-bearing autotrophic thalloid plant body. Storage form of food: Starch The first group is the diatoms, which have a cell wall composed of silica. They have different sizes, shapes, and colors. amzn_assoc_ad_mode = "manual"; Here we have grouped algae with protozoa and slime molds in Protista because mthe majority of algae are unicellular, and even the multicellular algae are structurally simple compared to true plants. Alternation of generations occurs in their life cycle. Ø The classification of algae by Fritsch is primarily based of the pigmentation in algae. […] They reproduce asexually by autospores or by biflagellate, flattened zoospores. The study of algae is called Phycology or algology. For example, some phycologists place the classes Bacillariophyceae, Phaeophyceae, and Xanthophyceae in the division Chromophyta, whereas others place each class in separate divisions: Bacillariophyta, Phaeophyta, and Xanthophyta. The thylakoids are stacked in triplets and it contains chlorophyll a and chlorophyll c. They are photosynthetic organisms which contain pigments like chlorophylls a and c. The cells also contain accessory pigments such as β-carotene and diadinoxanthin. The photosynthetic pigments are chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c and phycobiliprotein. Reproductions occur through binary fission, sporogenesis, etc. Fritsch’s Classification: The algae have broadly been divided by F. F. Fritsch in 1935 into eleven classes according to their colour: i. Chlorophyceae or green algae, e.g. They feed on organic material suspended in the water. Chlamydomonas; Pant body: known as Thallus and they are avascular; Habitat: Algae are usually aquatic, either freshwater or marine and some are terresterial. In this case, sexual reproduction is isogamous type. Algae experience restarted or stunted growth if they get favorable conditions but nutrients are present in small quantity. amzn_assoc_title = "My Amazon Picks"; amzn_assoc_tracking_id = "mywebsit03240-20"; Reproduction in algae occurs in both asexual and sexual forms. Only a few algals species are harmful. The main difference between algae and fungi is that algae are autotrophs, containing chlorophylls for photosynthesis whereas fungi are heterotrophs, obtaining organic material from the sources in the external environment. They perform alternation of generation with haplobiontic or diplobiontic life cycles. Plant body is commonly unbranched fila­ment like ; but in Ulvaceae it is parenchymatous or foliaceous. They possess two or more apical flagella, if present. They also possess accessory pigments like beta carotene, fucoxanthin, lutein, violaxanthin and diaanthin. This group contains about 7000 species, among them, most occur in freshwater and some others in marine environment. During the Asexual reproduction fragments of the Algal body are formed. Most algae are aquatic but some are semi-aquatic and terrestrial. Most of them inhabit in freshwater environments. Sexual reproduction is unknown among the representatives of Pleurastrophyceae. Examples: Marine flagellate (Tetraselmis). When they get a sympathetic environment spores will germinate. Ø Different groups of algae have different pigment composition. General characteristics of algae, Classification of algae based on habitat, Thallus diversity in algae, Chloroplast shape variations in algae, Pigmentation in algae, Reproduction in algae, Life cycle in algae. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Examples: Ascophyllum, Ectocarpus, Laminaria,  Fucus, Nereocystis, Macrocystis,  Pelagophycus,  Postelsia, Pelvetia,  Sargassum, etc. What are Algae – Definition, Classification, Characteristics amzn_assoc_linkid = "df6e3e2dfb2223ece0caaeddeb1e4806"; Zygote develops by either mitosis or meiosis cell division. Preview; Assign Practice; Preview. Algae are photoautotrophs. Algal cells are primarily eukaryotic cells with membrane-bound photosynthetic (chloroplast), respiratory (mitochondria) and genetic organelles.. They can inhabit in freshwater and marine environments. Its body lacks specialized structures like Roots, leaves, and Stems. They also present in the moist soil and also present on the surface of Rocks and stones. This class contains about 200 described species. Ø The classification of algae by Fritsch is primarily based of the pigmentation in algae. In addition to Sunlight Algae also necessitate a huge assortment of nutrients in addition to Sunlight. During this condition, some algae produce toxic compounds which are harmful and fatal for wildlife and human population. Algae have the ability to accumulate the heavy metals and thereby … Contain two whip-like tails called flagella. The flagellum does not contain tubular hairs. •The current systems of classification of algae are based on the following main criteria: o kinds of photosynthetic pigments, o type or chemical nature of photosynthetic energy storage products o photosynthetic membranes’ (thylakoids) organization and other features of the chloroplasts. Most algae store carbohydrate as reserve food, few members contains alcohol, fat or oil as reserve food. o cell wall composition and structure. They are unicellular species which exist individually, or in chains or groups. This phylum contains more than 1,500 described species. Fritsch (1944-45) categorized algae into eleven groups in his book “Structure and Reproduction of Algae” that are based on the given characteristics: A. Pigmentation. They are either motile or non-motile. Algal Examples. This phylum contains about 800 species. They are used as a stabilizer in milk products. They perform photosynthesis due to presence of chlorophyll in their body. They have Alternation of Generations during the reproduction. Start studying Algae Classification and Characteristics - Lecture Exam 1. amzn_assoc_ad_type = "smart"; … They reproduce through vegetative, asexual and sexual methods. amzn_assoc_region = "US"; Description of Phaeophyceae (Brown Algae): It is a large group of algae consisting of 240 genera and over 1,500 species out of which 32 genera and 93 species are reported from India. Characteristics of Algae: 1. Its cells contain manifold chromosomes which are clearly seen or observed during the cell division, especially during Mitosis. Zygote never form embryo. Their body contains Chlorophyll and photosynthetic pigments which help to perform Photosynthesis. amzn_assoc_default_category = "PCHardware"; Most of the algae are multicellular and marine algae (seaweeds). amzn_assoc_ad_mode = "search"; o the presence or absence of flagella (as well as the number and This class contains about 1000 known species. Ectocarpus, etc. They have a transparent cell wall (frustule) made of silicon dioxide, which is itself hydrated with a little amount of water. The algae have great important because they produce much oxygen on the earth for animals and human beings. The algae belong to the subphylum Thallophyta of the kingdom Protista in modern classification of organisms. This class contains about 600 described species.