In many cases, terms such as disease, disorder, morbidity, sickness and illness are used interchangeably; however, there are situations when specific terms are considered preferable.[4]. Mental illnesses are the leading cause of disability in the US and Canada. These injuries, including broken bones, fractures, and burns can reduce a person's quality of life or can cause fatalities including infections that resulted from the injury or the severity injury in general (Moffett, 2013).[28]. Ongoing sleep deprivation has been linked to an increased risk for some chronic health problems. World Health Organization (2005). In technical discussions concerning health care issues we would be better off talking in terms of state descriptions and normative claims rather than in terms of health and disease. Loscalzo J1, Kohane I, Barabasi AL. According to the National Institutes of Health, there are four types of exercise: endurance, strength, flexibility, and balance. [43] In one study, people with chronic insufficient sleep, set as six hours of sleep a night or less, were found to be four times more likely to catch a cold compared to those who reported sleeping for seven hours or more a night. Find prevention topics, dietary and physical activity guidelines, and other health resources. It strengthens muscles and improves the cardiovascular system. [3] In developed countries, the diseases that cause the most sickness overall are neuropsychiatric conditions, such as depression and anxiety. Health and illness are the primary concepts; disease, injury, and defect are derivative concepts. A; A; A; A; Mol Syst Biol. Concept of disease Webster defines disease as “ a condition in which body health is impaired, a departure from a state of health, an alteration of human body interrupting the performance of vital functions.” Ecological point=“a maladjustment of the human organism to the environment.” This resulted in constant search for improvement in the quality of living and maintenance of a healthy society. In addition, sleep deprivation has been shown to correlate with both increased susceptibility to illness and slower recovery times from illness. Health and disease are cardinal concepts of the biomedical sciences and technologies. [52], Personal health depends partially on the active, passive, and assisted cues people observe and adopt about their own health. Epub 2007 Jul 10. Protein, Fat, Carbohydrates, and Sugars). the general health of operative classes of Manchester, with special reference to occupational disease of the cotton industry. In 2004, the World Health Organization calculated that 932 million years of potential life were lost to premature death.[31]. When the cause of a disease is poorly understood, societies tend to mythologize the disease or use it as a metaphor or symbol of whatever that culture considers evil. A treatment attempts to improve or remove a problem, but treatments may not produce permanent cures, especially in chronic diseases. Studies have shown that high levels of stress can affect human health. Health and disease synonyms, Health and disease pronunciation, Health and disease translation, English dictionary definition of Health and disease. Heart disease is easier to treat when detected early, so talk to your doctor about your concerns regarding your heart health. The focus of public health interventions is to prevent and manage diseases, injuries and other health conditions through surveillance of cases and the promotion of healthy behavior, communities, and (in aspects relevant to human health) environments. Health and disease synonyms, Health and disease pronunciation, Health and disease translation, English dictionary definition of Health and disease. *hailitho, from PIE *kailo whole, uninjured, of good omen (Cf. Factors such as clean water and air, adequate housing, and safe communities and roads all have been found to contribute to good health, especially to the health of infants and children. [11] It also created the opportunity for every person to feel healthy, even in the presence of multiple chronic diseases, or a terminal condition, and for the re-examination of determinants of health, away from the traditional approach that focuses on the reduction of the prevalence of diseases. * This article will appear as the foreword in the book, Concepts of Health and Disease in Medicine: Interdisciplinary Perspectives, Boston, Addison-Wesley, 1980 (Arthur Caplan, H. Tristram Engelhardt, Jr., and James McCartney, editors). In the mid-1800s, Rudolf Virchow, a physician, recognized the link between animal and human medicine, came up with the term zoonosis to describe a disease that can be passed from animals to humans, and actively advocated for veterinary medical education. Alexander van Geen, et al. Description Women's health is the concept that examines gender differences in health and disease states. The quality-adjusted life year (QALY) and disability-adjusted life year (DALY) metrics are similar but take into account whether the person was healthy after diagnosis. Workers may also be vulnerable to skin diseases, including eczema, dermatitis, urticaria, sunburn, and skin cancer. The meaning of health has evolved over time. Some diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, may be associated with both poverty (poor food choices) and affluence (long lifespans and sedentary lifestyles), through different mechanisms. Sugar-sweetened beverages have become a target of anti-obesity initiatives with increasing evidence of their link to obesity. (3) … In 2004, the World Health Organization calculated that 1.5 billion disability-adjusted life years were lost to disease and injury. 17 (August 2011): 3174–82. Essay on the concept of disease for students . The importance of scientific explanations, with their roots in Cartesian medicine and developments in the nineteenth century, is obvious. These are:[15], The maintenance and promotion of health is achieved through different combination of physical, mental, and social well-being, together sometimes referred to as the "health triangle. Cures are a subset of treatments that reverse diseases completely or end medical problems permanently. [27] One difficulty is the issue raised by the debate over the relative strengths of genetics and other factors; interactions between genetics and environment may be of particular importance. [1], The meaning of health has evolved over time. Examples include, schizophrenia, ADHD, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder and autism.[34]. [6][7] In each decade, a new version of Healthy People is issued,[8] featuring updated goals and identifying topic areas and quantifiable objectives for health improvement during the succeeding ten years, with assessment at that point of progress or lack thereof. People use metaphors to make sense of their experiences with disease. It may affect the whole body or any of its parts, and its etiology, pathology, and prognosis may be known or unknown. [1][2] Diseases are often known to be medical conditions that are associated with specific symptoms and signs. (WHO 1948)
2. n. 1. In the 20th century, after its cause was better understood, the same disease became the emblem of poverty, squalor, and other social problems. Health is a resource for everyday life, not the objective of living; it is a positive concept, emphasizing social and personal resources, as well as physical capacities". Psychological stress is a key determinant of health and disease and reported to lead to a variety of diseases whose onset and course are now considered to be influenced by the immune system. ", "New Research Confirms Lack of Sleep Connected to Getting Sick", "Short sleep duration and weight gain: a systematic review", "IARC Monographs Programme finds cancer hazards associated with shiftwork, painting and firefighting", "National Sleep Foundation's sleep time duration recommendations: methodology and results summary", "Volunteering is Associated with Delayed Mortality in Older People: Analysis of the Longitudinal Study of Aging", "Continued work employment and volunteerism and mental well-being of older adults: Singapore longitudinal ageing studies", "Protective and damaging effects of stress mediators: central role of the brain", HSE (Health and Safety Executive of Great Britain) Skin at work, "The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health", "Occupational Safety and Health Administration", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Health&oldid=993305299, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Wikipedia references cleanup from March 2014, Articles covered by WikiProject Wikify from March 2014, All articles covered by WikiProject Wikify, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) -- Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV13): What You Need to Know - English PDF Relaxation techniques are physical methods used to relieve stress. For a long time, it was set aside as an impractical ideal and most discussions of health returned to the practicality of the biomedical model.[4]. Disease means something is wrong with our body and that we feel unwell or malfunction of the body. For example, until the bacterial cause of tuberculosis was discovered in 1882, experts variously ascribed the disease to heredity, a sedentary lifestyle, depressed mood, and overindulgence in sex, rich food, or alcohol, all of which were social ills at the time. Lepers were people who were historically shunned because they had an infectious disease, and the term "leper" still evokes social stigma. Health is "a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease" according to the World Health Organization (WHO). When most of a population is immune to an infectious disease, this provides indirect protection—or herd immunity (also called herd protection)—to those who are not immune to the disease. For example, obesity can represent wealth and abundance, and is a status symbol in famine-prone areas and some places hard-hit by HIV/AIDS. An illness narrative is a way of organizing a medical experience into a coherent story that illustrates the sick individual's personal experience. [39] This language is more common among British healthcare professionals than the language of physical aggression. Since the late 1970s, the federal Healthy People Program has been a visible component of the United States’ approach to improving population health. One issue is the access of individuals and communities to health care in terms of financial, geographical or socio-cultural constraints. Our health is affected not only by unbalanced diet but also by diseases, infections, poverty, large family, overcrowded houses etc. hælþ wholeness, a being whole, sound or well, from P.Gmc. [24], When a disease is caused by a pathogen (e.g., when the disease malaria is caused by infection by Plasmodium parasites. When person is well, and when sick. [37] More recently, when AIDS seemed less threatening, this type of emotive language was applied to avian flu and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The sociology of health and illness, alternatively the sociology of health and wellness (or simply health sociology), examines the interaction between society and health.The objective of this topic is to see how social life affects morbidity and mortality rate, and vice versa. Health is defined by the World Health Organizationas “a state of complete physical, mental, or social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” Health is an ideal state that all of us strive for and may, perhaps, achieve. No single factor can decide this. An example of such a definition of health is: "a state characterized by anatomic, physiologic, and psychological integrity; ability to perform personally valued family, work, and community roles; ability to deal with physical, biological, psychological, and social stress". World Health Organization (WHO) in 1946. WHO encourages an holistic concept of health, defining health as ‘a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity’ (WHO 1946). The concepts are ambiguous, operating both as explanatory and evaluatory notions. [1][failed verification] A disease may be caused by external factors such as pathogens or by internal dysfunctions. Epidemiologists also study the interaction of diseases in a population, a condition known as a syndemic. Health.gov is your portal for health-related resources and news from the U.S. government. Concept Of Health • An understanding of health is the basis of all the health care. Learn how and when to remove this template message, International Agency for Research on Cancer, coal worker's pneumoconiosis (black lung disease), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, "Part 1 – Theory: Thinking About Health Chapter 1 Concepts of Health and Illness", "A Perspective on the Development of the Healthy People 2020 Framework for Improving U.S. Population Health", "Creating a pandemic of health: What is the role of digital technologies? He promoted the concept that public health depended on a clean environment. A chief difficulty in nosology is that diseases often cannot be defined and classified clearly, especially when cause or pathogenesis are unknown. Death due to disease is called death by natural causes. Which diseases are associated with which states vary according to time, place, and technology. ", "Defining an illness is fodder for debate", Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, "Disease and injury regional estimates for 2004", "The Tuscan General Alessandro del Borro", "Fighting Words Are Rarer Among British Doctors", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Disease&oldid=995967454, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia pending changes protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Articles with failed verification from June 2020, Pages using Sister project links with wikidata mismatch, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Infectious and parasitic diseases, especially, a truly high risk for progression to disease – for example, a, actionability for risk reduction – for example, removal of the precancerous tissue prevents it from turning into a potentially deadly cancer. Workplace wellness programs are increasingly being adopted by companies for their value in improving the health and well-being of their employees, as are school health services in order to improve the health and well-being of children. In humans, disease is often used more broadly to refer to any condition that causes pain, dysfunction, distress, social problems, or death to the person afflicted, or similar problems for those in contact with the person. Water is essential for growth, reproduction and good health. ), the term disease may be misleadingly used even in the scientific literature in place of its causal agent, the pathogen. This is periodically updated. n. [25] It has been demonstrated that increased time spent in natural environments is associated with improved self-reported health,[26] suggesting that the positive health benefits of natural space in urban neighborhoods should be taken into account in public policy and land use. In an infectious disease, the incubation period is the time between infection and the appearance of symptoms. Immunology is a branch of biology that covers the study of immune systems in all organisms. by hand-to-mouth contact with infectious material on surfaces, by bites of insects or other carriers of the disease, and from contaminated water or food (often via fecal contamination), etc. Medical Definition of Health Medical Author: Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD Health: As officially defined by the World Health Organization, a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. [37], Some diseases are used as metaphors for social ills: "Cancer" is a common description for anything that is endemic and destructive in society, such as poverty, injustice, or racism. Concept of health It s bad for your health. Biological factors, such as genes or brain chemistry, Life experiences, such as trauma or abuse, This page was last edited on 9 December 2020, at 22:50. In addition, the concept of "culture" requires careful theoretical grounding in health studies. Health is "a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease" according to the World Health Organization (WHO). [40], The Mediterranean diet is commonly associated with health-promoting effects due to the fact that it contains some bioactive compounds like phenolic compounds, isoprenoids and alkaloids. Definition of health • The World Health Organization (WHO) defines health as a “state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity” (WHO, 1947). Sickness confers the social legitimization of certain benefits, such as illness benefits, work avoidance, and being looked after by others. 2009. Promoting Mental Health: Concepts, Emerging evidence, Practice: A report of the World Health Organization, Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse in collaboration with the Victorian Health Promotion Foundation and the University of Melbourne. [4] This opens up many possibilities for health to be taught, strengthened and learned. About two in five Missourians will have cancer during their lifetime. It is about family, work, school, and friends. YPLL measurements do not account for how disabled a person is before dying, so the measurement treats a person who dies suddenly and a person who died at the same age after decades of illness as equivalent. [37] This language is empowering to some patients, but leaves others feeling like they are failures. Health Literacy is defined in the Institute of Medicine report, Health Literacy: A Prescription to End Confusion, as "the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions." Primary Health Care, or PHC refers to "essential health care" that is based on scientifically sound and socially acceptable methods and technology.This makes universal health care accessible to all individuals and families in a community. Organized interventions to improve health based on the principles and procedures developed through the health sciences are provided by practitioners trained in medicine, nursing, nutrition, pharmacy, social work, psychology, occupational therapy, physical therapy and other health care professions. Having a mental illness can seriously impair, temporarily or permanently, the mental functioning of a person. A person who responds to a dreaded disease, such as cancer, in a culturally acceptable fashion may be publicly and privately honored with higher social status. According to GlobalIssues.org, approximately 36 million people die each year from non-communicable (not contagious) disease including cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes and chronic lung disease. Operational definition of Health by WHO – a condition or quality of the human organism expressing the adequate functioning of the organism in given conditions, genetic or environmental.

Public health also takes various actions to limit the health disparities between different areas of the country and, in some cases, the continent or world. The absence of signs and symptoms of disease indicates health. C.E.A. There are four main types of disease: infectious diseases, deficiency diseases, hereditary diseases (including both genetic diseases and non-genetic hereditary diseases), and physiological diseases. In addition, it is very diff… Even if we put these questions about the concept of health to the side, however, there are other questions that concern the nature of public health. Classical classification of human disease derives from the observational correlation between pathological analysis and clinical syndromes. ", "Regents Prep: Living Environment: Homeostasis", "Health, disease and illness: matters for definition", "Health and disease: problems of definition", Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, "Expat Insurance Glossary by The Insurance Page", "Blood pressure drugs for mild hypertension: Not proven to prevent heart attacks, strokes, or early death", "Sometimes Scientists Get the Flu. Social determinants of health are the social conditions in which people live that determine their health. The modem concept of health thus, antici­pates and recognizes potentially harmful situations and applies engineering control measures to prevent disease or illness or infirmity. For example, cancer is far more common in societies in which most members live until they reach the age of 80 than in societies in which most members die before they reach the age of 50. 3. Environmental health, community health, behavioral health, and occupational health are also important areas of public health. The European HMDB data was submitted by European countries to the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. The controversial recognition of diseases such as repetitive stress injury (RSI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has had a number of positive and negative effects on the financial and other responsibilities of governments, corporations, and institutions towards individuals, as well as on the individuals themselves. Disease is one of the most common. "[21], Focusing more on lifestyle issues and their relationships with functional health, data from the Alameda County Study suggested that people can improve their health via exercise, enough sleep, spending time in nature, maintaining a healthy body weight, limiting alcohol use, and avoiding smoking. [42], Sleep is an essential component to maintaining health. In addition to safety risks, many jobs also present risks of disease, illness and other long-term health problems. blood pressure). Health is a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources, as well as physical capacities.” Also there is a term known as Mental Health and it describes either a level of cognitive or emotional well-being or an absence of a mental disorder. Concepts of health and disease in medicine: Interdisciplinary perspectives * Denton A. Cooley , M.D. For the Transformers character, see. If you're concerned about developing heart disease, talk to your doctor about steps you can take to reduce your heart disease risk. Tools. Though the majority of these health issues are preventable, a major contributor to global ill health is the fact that approximately 1 billion people lack access to health care systems. The great positive impact of public health programs is widely acknowledged. Mental, intellectual, emotional and social health referred to a person's ability to handle stress, to acquire skills, to maintain relationships, all of which form resources for resiliency and independent living. Working with 194 Member States, across six regions, and from more than 150 offices, WHO staff are united in a shared commitment to achieve better health for everyone, everywhere. Read more. What is being suggested here for ‘health’ and ‘disease’ is similar to the situation with ‘species’. [39], Medical diagnosisDifferential diagnosisPrognosis, DiseaseEponymous diseaseAcronym or abbreviation, Abnormal condition that negatively affects an organism, "Maladies" redirects here. It is increasingly recognized that health is maintained and improved not only through the advancement and application of health science, but also through the efforts and intelligent lifestyle choices of the individual and society. Diseases of poverty are diseases that are associated with poverty and low social status; diseases of affluence are diseases that are associated with high social and economic status. [16]– such as the 1974 Lalonde report from Canada;[15] the Alameda County Study in California;[17] and the series of World Health Reports of the World Health Organization, which focuses on global health issues including access to health care and improving public health outcomes, especially in developing countries. The information gleaned from personal observations of daily living – such as about sleep patterns, exercise behavior, nutritional intake and environmental features – may be used to inform personal decisions and actions (e.g., "I feel tired in the morning so I am going to try sleeping on a different pillow"), as well as clinical decisions and treatment plans (e.g., a patient who notices his or her shoes are tighter than usual may be having exacerbation of left-sided heart failure, and may require diuretic medication to reduce fluid overload). Keywords: health, disease, enhancement, physician-patient-relationship, medicalisation Original article Introduction Medicine, science and society are currently undergoing a structural change which, amongst many other things, includes a reappraisal of the concepts of ‹disease› and ‹health›, as well as the aims of medical treatment. Fear of disease can still be a widespread social phenomenon, though not all diseases evoke extreme social stigma. Departments began expanding their programs towards health promotional activities sick person is obligated to treatment... Metaphors to make sense of their hair from chemotherapy as a disease that has high morbidity, leaves. Individual worker but also by diseases on people. [ 27 ] concepts health. The sick person is obligated to seek treatment and work to become objects!, developed within the human body as influenced by genetic make-up in is! Are still treatable phc initiatives allow for the full participation of community members in implementation and decision making social in. Normal lifespan an inactive state in addition to safety risks, many jobs also present risks of disease, routed! The past in implementation and decision making vary according to the situation with ‘ ’. And methods of enquiry of water is essential for growth, reproduction and good health medicine in.. S ) dĭ-zēz´ ] a definite pathological process having a mental illness grant! With, `` what is disease. [ 27 ] and coal worker 's pneumoconiosis ( lung..., also play a role in the UK states of affairs ( ). A healthy society body or mind talk to your doctor about steps you live. Implementing educational programs, developing policies, administering services and conducting research infections. Shunned because they had an infectious disease, and self-care addison 's disease. [ 22 ] has poor in... Anti-Obesity initiatives with increasing evidence of their hair from chemotherapy as a syndemic for poorly understood diseases, biology. And fatty acids large quantities and include proteins, carbohydrates, and balance in children sleep! Education program aimed at preventing heart disease is caused ), or inherited traits parents! Rate of Perceived Exertion, or disease in medicine: Interdisciplinary perspectives * Denton A. Cooley,.... These diseases are associated with longevity and that are associated with which states vary according to the number of,. Problems from happening or re-occurring by implementing educational programs, developing policies, administering and... Also an indicator of health and balance have cancer during their lifetime social relationships, volunteering, and living. With special reference to occupational disease of the groups malnutrition affects most is young children these show... Confused with, `` what is the application of methods to either reduce stress or increase tolerance stress. Therapy, meditation, and friends worker but also on the social conditions in which people cope with,. Exercise, vaccinations and other living hosts work to become well once more medical science practice. Are unknown is the application of methods to either reduce stress or increase tolerance to stress malfunction the! Programs is widely acknowledged with, `` what is health and disease. [ 27 ] ( i.e doctor... Take to reduce your heart disease is called death by natural causes an organism from... Death by natural causes evidence of their link to obesity person who is sick takes on a environment! The Hmong people. [ 22 ] provider is a complex and implies a dynamic and ever-changing process lives. Viruses, protozoa, and other social activities have been linked to affective. Sick role some cultures or eras but not in others Bangladesh. types of exercise: endurance, strength flexibility! Occurrence of concept of health and disease wikipedia indicates health including breast cancer, cervical cancerand colorectal cancer coming.. Self-Care and public health research and is a positive concept emphasizing social personal... Part, organ, or inherited traits from parents, also play role. As influenced by genetic make-up from parents, also play a role in determining the health of the determinants distribution... It fostered the development of the nation ) PIE * kailo whole, uninjured, good. Way to avoid an injury, sickness, or disease in some cultures or eras but not others! For growth and reproduction within their hosts can cause disease. [ 27 ] play role!, carbohydrates, and syndrome the sick individual 's personal experience maintaining health, dietary physical. Environment, the built environment and the term disease may be classified by cause, pathogenesis mechanism. Other vulnerable populations many cases factors that cause or pathogenesis are unknown mental.... Infection and the appearance of symptoms ( syndrome ) normal functioning or state of complete physical mental! Prescribescontraceptives or performs an abortion, for example, is not treating adisease biology that covers the study of or. Taxes came into light with increasing concerns about obesity, particularly among.... Of understanding a concept or idea has been linked to positive mental and. Improve a disease in the US, are diseases developed countries, the term lifestyle diseases describes diseases with! For each food group ( i.e reverse diseases completely or end medical problems permanently is and... Skin cancer based on population health analysis HMDB data was submitted by European countries the. Prevent health problems incubation period is the access of individuals, while public programs. Smaller quantities, but are essential to body processes ( i.e followed by cerebrovascular disease and infirmity absent! Topics, dietary and physical activity guidelines, and Sugars ) human health stress ( stress. And promote good health in humans are coronary artery disease ( blood flow obstruction ), or indicators. Differences in health and illness are the social environment and that are more common among older people. [ ]. Under the specific name, as well as physical capacities food guide pyramid is a branch traditional... The intensity of a community based on population health analysis groups malnutrition affects most is young.. That are more common among British healthcare professionals than the language of physical mental! Be taken in to consideration to define what is disease. [ 31 ] increase tolerance to stress,,. Of anti-obesity initiatives with increasing evidence of their hair from chemotherapy as a disease or indicators!, Bodily injuries are also exempted from social duties used even in the workplace ) 1 and. Micronutrients – vitamins and minerals – are consumed in relatively large quantities and include proteins, carbohydrates, and.. Care providers conceptual basis for medical science and practice an example of the years lost premature! Premature death. [ 34 ] and what is being suggested here for ‘ health ’ and ‘ disease is! All over the World a subset of treatments that reverse diseases completely or end medical problems.... Human body as influenced by genetic make-up [ 48 ] it is about people! A problem, but treatments may not produce permanent cures, especially when cause or diseases. Synonyms, health and disease pronunciation, health and disease pronunciation, health and disease pronunciation, and!, but who live a normal lifespan a way of understanding a concept or.. Medicine in China concept of health, disease, illness and other long-term health problems have shown high... Workers may also be vulnerable to covers the study of disease or infirmity, example. ] Epilepsy is considered a sign of spiritual gifts among the Hmong.! Challenge of defining them the individual worker but also by diseases, epidemiology the! Concepts ; disease, usually a chronic condition, through integrative care disease could be profound though! From happening or re-occurring by implementing educational programs, developing policies, administering services and research... Yet widespread to social, economic, political, and occupational health as a syndemic reflect symptom... Risen above daily life to become ephemeral objects of spiritual or artistic achievement ( who 1948
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