Developed by Walter Reckless in 1973, Control Theory comes under the Positivist school of thought. Charles R. Tittle, Cindy Brooks Dollar. The empirical status of Gottfredson and Hirschi’s general theory of crime: A meta-analysis. Continuing with an examination of large social factors, control theory states that social control is directly affected by the strength of social bonds and that deviance results from a feeling of disconnection from society. Social control theory, developed by Travis Hirschi, is a type of functionalist theory that suggests deviance occurs when a person’s or group’s attachment to social bonds is weakened. The ‘Social Control’ Theory sees crime as a result of social institutions losing control over individuals. Certain desirable acts, including acts of deviance, are enacted in an attempt to relieve the negative emotions associated with control imbalance while also minimizing the potential for retaliation or other forms of resistance. Developed in 1995 and refined in 2004, control balance theory seeks to explain and predict the cause of deviant acts. In A. R. Piquero (Ed.). One way of dividing up theories of social control is to separate them into conformity producing and deviance repressingapproaches (Hudson 1997) suggested there were Conformity producing theories tend to focus on how people learn to conform by internalising social norms and taking on social roles (like with the Functionalist view of the family or education) Deviance repressing theories tend to look at the relationship between deviance behaviour and the measures used to r… define social control and identify the major types of social control. Cesare Lombroso A biological interpretation of formal deviance was first advanced by the Italian School of Criminology, a school of thought originating from Italy during the mid-nineteenth century. Radical criticisms of Functionalist and Interactionist theories of deviance. Legal. Psychological theory of deviance: In many ways, psychological theories of deviance mirror biological explanations (see section: Biological Theories of Deviance), only with an emphasis on the brain. Abstract. deviance: Actions or behaviors that violate formal and informal cultural norms, such as laws or the norm that discourages public nose-picking. Travis Hirschi: Control Theory. Merton’s theory focuses on various acts of deviance which he believes may lead to acts of crime. Deviance is behavior that violates social norms and arouses negative social reactions. Control balance behind bars: Testing the generality of Tittle’s theory among incarcerated men and women. Control balance theory and violence: An examination of contingencies. (2002). Pratt, T. C., & Cullen, F. T. (2000). Mixed control is typically maintained by establishing a set of values and beliefs or norms and traditions. Psychopathy and sociopathy both refer to … Ronald L. Akers, PhD, 1966, is a professor of Criminology and Sociology at the University … Piquero, A. R., & Hickman, M. (2003). Control (1935– ) A sociologist who elaborated on the control theory of deviance and identified four elements that he believed would render an individual more or less likely to commit acts of deviance. Individuals who believe they are a part of society are less likely to commit crimes against it. Human nature and social control in complex society: A critique of Charles Tittle’s control balance. Control theory explains that societal institutions without strong control of society can result in deviant behavior. This is a preview of subscription content. According to this view, people care about what others think of them and conform to social expectations because of their attachments to others and what others expect of them. The fourth main sociological theory of deviance is labeling theory. 3. Williams, K. S. (2008). In A. R. Piquero (Ed.). Social control theories, however, focus primarily on external factors and the processes by which they become effective. Janis, Irving (1918–1990) The sociologist who coined the term groupthink. Assessing intimate partner violence in a control balance theory framework. Following, we answer ten inquiries frequently asked about the theory, including questions about control ratios and control balance desirability, self-control’s relation to control ratios, the subjectivity of provocations, the process of control balancing, beliefs about human rationality and desire for control, the reciprocal nature of control, the role of revenge, and the empirical standing of the theory. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Wood, P. B., & Dunaway, R. G. (1997). Ultimately, social control theory is Hobbesian; it presupposes that all choices are constrained by social relations and contracts between parties. In H. Brownstein, M. A. Zahn, & S. I. Jackson (Eds.). Tittle describes this relationshi… Travis Hirschi also made significant contributions as well. Agnew, R. (2016). We also acknowledge previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and 1413739. According to Travis Hirschi, people will conform to a group when they believe they have more to gain from conformity than by deviance. Labeling theory argues that people become deviant as a result of others forcing that identity upon them. Research shows that social control variables have a stronger correlation with delinquent and criminal behaviour than any other variable. A., & Greene, J. R. (2001). Dunaway, R. G., Cullen, F. T., Piquero, A. R., Wood, P. B., Burton, Jr., V. S. & Evans, T. D. (1999). This paper examines the logical adequacy of cultural deviance theories, specifically Sutherland's differential association theory and Akers's social learning theory. The LibreTexts libraries are Powered by MindTouch® and are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and Merlot. More specifically, the theory hypothesizes that perceived control ratio imbalances may produce feelings of disrespect or humiliation thus promoting contemplations of how to extend control of people, events, and circumstances without stimulating counter control. (1997). Fox, K. A., Nobles, M. R., & Lane, J. In the conflict theory of deviance, laws are simply a way for one class to control another class so that resources do not need to be shared. false. In P. O. H. Wikström & R. J. Sampson (Eds.). Control Theory garnered intensive debates in the 1970’s and 1980’s … He has also done research on white-collar crime and environmental crime. Control Balance Theory of Deviance. Hirschi argued a person follows norms because they have a bond with society. (1999). Pages 259-281. Have questions or comments? Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. Which sociological perspective … Baron, S. W., & Forde, D. R. (2007). Crime and Punishment After reading this chapter, you will be able to define deviance. Unlike most criminology theories that purport to explain why people offend, control theory offers the justification for why people obey rules. McCarthy, B. … An empirical test of Tittle s control balance theory. Subject: Sociology, Personal Statement Date: Topic: Deviance, Crime, and Social Control The canvas for studies of social learning theory is vast and wide-ranging. (1987) argue that parental positions in the workforce affect patriarchal attitudes in the household. Curry, T. R., & Piquero, A. R. (2003). Hirschi: Bonds of Attachment Centralized control is considered bureaucratic control. The relationship between the social structure of Capitalist society and crime. An example of mixed control is clan control, which contains both centralized and decentralized control. Crime is behavior that violates these laws and is certainly an important type of deviance that concerns many Americans.. 2. True b. Piquero, A. R., & Hickman, M. (1999). There are four crucial questions that cultural deviance theorists have not addressed adequately: (1) What is the content of deviant norms? Travis Hirschi also made significant contributions as well. Control Theory in sociology can either be classified as centralized, decentralized, or mixed. Savelsberg, J. J. Some types of control such as clan control are considered to be a mixture of both decentralized and centralized control. Centralized control, such as bureaucratic control, is typically maintained through administrative or hierarchical techniques that create standards or policies. Stets, J. E. (1995). Developed by Walter Reckless in 1973, Control Theory comes under the Positivist school of thought. This … Control theory states that we. Control theory identifies these bonds we have with others as a main reason most people do not violate laws. In sociology, control theory is the view that people refrain from deviant behavior because diverse factors control their impulses to break social norms. If a strong bond is achieved there will be less chance of deviance than if a weak … pp 243-257 | false. According to control theory, weak social systems result in deviant behavior. Control Theory, or Social Control Theory, states that a person’s inner and outer controls both work together to negate deviant tendencies. Tittle conceives of control balance as a continuation, or temporary culmination, of the collective efforts of crime/deviance scholars who have gone before, … Continuing with an examination of large social factors, control theory states that social control is directly affected by the strength of social bonds and that deviance results from a feeling of disconnection from society. are bonded to our family members, friends, and peers in a way that leads us to follow the mores and folkways of our society. People may want—at least some of the time—to act in deviant ways, but most do not. The fact that both deviance and crime arouse negative social … Adopted a LibreTexts for your class? differentiate the major functional theories … False. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available, Handbook on Crime and Deviance Hickman, M., Piquero, A. R., Lawton, B. Developmental and Life-Course Theories of Crime and Deviance. Per-Olof H. Wikström. 66.198.252.210. Charles Tittle’s control balance and criminological theory. Moreover, control theory is met with some resistance for its compliance to a conservative view of the broader social order. Travis Hirschi: Control Theory. Not logged in Control theory According to Walter Reckless's control theory, both inner and outer controls work against deviant tendencies. Deviance and Social Control: A Sociological Perspective provides a sociological examination of deviant behavior in society, with a significant focus on the major theories of deviance and society’s reaction to deviance. 2 Different definitions of crime, deviance, social order and social control The distinction between sociological theories of crime and other theories (e.g biological, psychological). For more information contact us at info@libretexts.org or check out our status page at https://status.libretexts.org. Deviance is behavior that. In this chapter, we review the basic theory of control balance. He is currently working on three manuscripts and has published mainly in journals in his country of origin. Control balance theory and exploitation: An examination of contingencies. Control theory advances the proposition that weak bonds between the individual and society allow people to deviate. This leads to conformity and groups. Jensen, G. A. Control Balance: Toward A General Theory Of Deviance (Crime & Society) - Kindle edition by Tittle, Charles R. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. Mixed control is typically maintained by keeping a set of values and beliefs or norms and traditions. Labeling theory refers to the idea that individuals become deviant when a deviant label is applied to them; they adopt the label by exhibiting the behaviors, actions, and attitudes associated with the label. An outline of Marxist conflict theory as a distinct sociological perspective. Without this "control", deviant behavior would happen more often. Tittle, C. R. (2004a). Crime and deviance as socially constructed Functionalist theories of crime; Durkheim, anomie, collective conscience.Merton’s strain theory; manifest and latent functions; functionalist subcultural theories … Finally, an introduction to a more-modern form of Marxist criminology, that of the "Radical Criminology" perspective pioneered, in Britain, by the sociologists Paul Taylor, Ian Walton and … The Control Balance Theory has its starting point in the observation that other control theories only consider forms of control that affect an individual from the outside. Deviance and Social Control 2. Solutions: Modification or rehabilitation in the part of the system which suffers from disorganization. Control theory can either be classified as centralized or decentralized or neither. Control balance theory also explains six basic types of deviance, ranging from predation, defiance, and submissiveness on one end of a control ratio continuum to exploitation, plunder, and decadence on the other.Tittle conceives of control balance as a continuation, or temporary culmination, of the collective efforts of crime/deviance scholars who have gone before, … Weak institutions such as certain types of families, the breakdown of local communities, and the breakdown of trust in the government and the police are all linked to higher crime rates. deviance: Actions or behaviors that violate formal and informal cultural norms, such as laws or the norm that discourages public nose-picking. Taylor, Walton and Young's principles of a "fully social theory of deviance". Baumer, E. P., & Arnio, A. N. (2016). The relationship between actively exercised and self-experienced control is important here. Applying Tittle’s control balance theory to police deviance. Tittle, C. R. (2004b). Integrating components of existing theories with novel sociological thought, the theory proposes deviance as one response to acute awareness of control imbalance. Control balance theory also explains six basic types of deviance, ranging from predation, defiance, and submissiveness on one end of a control ratio continuum to … Developed by thinkers such as Travis Hirschi and Walter Reckless in the late 1960s and early 1970s, control theory explains why people often do not act on deviant impulses. It examines many types of behaviors, like childhood and adolescent aggression, marital discord, drug and alcohol addiction, at the political level terrorism and all types of criminal behaviors. power-control theory combines class and control theories of deviance to explain the effects of familial control on gender differences in crime. An application of control balance theory to incarcerated sex offenders. Using Tittle’s control balance theory to understand computer crime and deviance. Some behavior is considered so harmful that governments enact written laws that ban the behavior. Authors Michelle Inderbitzin, Kristin A. Bates, and Randy R. Gainey use sociological theories to illuminate issues related to deviant behavior, … Introduction Control Theory, or Social Control Theory, states that a person’s inner and outer controls both work together to negate deviant tendencies. Foundation for a general strain theory of crime and delinquency. Evidence from Ukraine. Psychopaths and sociopaths are some of the favourite “deviants” in contemporary popular culture. 1. A law that benefits one class, but not the other, creates a conflict between the two. The level of explanation problem revisited the American Society of Criminology 1997 Presidential Address. People will conform to a group when they believe they have more to gain from conformity than by deviance. Short, J. F., Jr. (1998). Social control and self-control theorists are unique in suggesting that patterns in criminal behaviors are better explained by variations in social constraints rather than by individual motivational impulses, thus indicating that their … Control ratio and defiant acts if deviance: Assessing additive and conditional effects with constraints and impulsivity. True b. Wikström, P. O. H. (2006). Individuals, settings, and acts of crime: Situational mechanisms and the explanation of crime. Conflict Theory and Deviance 5. (2016). Developed in 1995 and refined in 2004, control balance theory seeks to explain and predict the cause of deviant acts. Decentralized control, or market control, is typically maintained through factors such as price, competition, or market share. 18. [ "article:topic", "showtoc:no", "license:ccbysa", "columns:two" ], https://socialsci.libretexts.org/@app/auth/3/login?returnto=https%3A%2F%2Fsocialsci.libretexts.org%2FBookshelves%2FSociology%2FBook%253A_Sociology_(Boundless)%2F07%253A_Deviance_Social_Control_and_Crime%2F7.06%253A_The_Symbolic-Interactionalist_Perspective_on_Deviance%2F7.6B%253A_Control_Theory, Identify the central assumption of control theory. What separates the two classes is how that deviance is described. Assessing stalking behaviors in a control balance theory framework. Control theories argue that human beings are basically antisocial and assume that deviance is part of the natural order in society. Centralized control such as bureaucratic control is typically maintained through administrative or hierarchical techniques such as creating standards or policies. If the individual has strong social bonds with positive influences, deviant behavior is less likely than for another individual who has no family or friends. Agnew, R. (1992). Piquero, A. R., & Piquero, N. L. (2006). a. Control theory advances the proposition that weak bonds between the individual and society allow people to deviate. More specifically, the theory hypothesizes that perceived control ratio … Merton says there are various goals pushed by society and that society emphasises a set of means to obtain these goals i. . He has done research on recidivism, social learning, social bonding, strain, and self-control theories. Analysing the cases of Nick Leeson, Jerome Kerviel, and Kweku Adoboli in light of the control balance theory. New economics of sociological criminology. Job autonomy and control over one’s spouse: A compensatory process. Developed in 1995 and refined in 2004, control balance theory seeks to explain and predict the cause of deviant acts. Control balance and exploitative corporate crime. All people are capable of feeling a certain motivation to deviate. Social control theory of Deviance • Assumes individuals have the capacity to anticipate to anticipate consequences of their behaviour and demonstrate self-control • Centres on the high self-control that learnt through effective childhood socialisation Assumes agreement of norms and consensus by society. Castro, E. D., Nobles, M. R. & Zavala, E. (2017). The theory primarily pertains to formal deviance, using biological reasons to explain criminality, though it can certainly extend to informal deviance. Control theory in sociology is the idea that two control systems—inner controls and outer controls—work against our tendencies to deviate. This is what leads to acts of deviance. While control theory gives an adequate explanation of non-serious forms of youthful delinquency, it fails to explain adult criminal behavior and serious instances of youth crime. Nobles, M. R., & Fox, K. A. Curry, T. R. (2005). Key Terms. The control theory developed when norms emerge to deter deviant behavior. Not affiliated In other words, deviant behavior occurs when external controls on behavior are weak. SOCIAL DISORGANIZATION THEORY • believes that deviant behavior as caused by the breakdown of norms, laws, mores, and other important values of society. Use features like bookmarks, note taking and highlighting while reading Control Balance: Toward A General Theory Of Deviance (Crime & Society). How general is control balance theory? Messner, S. F., Krohn, M. D., & Liska, A. E. (1985). Control theory advances the proposition that weak bonds between the individual and society allow people to deviate. According to Travis Hirschi, norms emerge to deter deviant behavior, leading to conformity and groups. A discussion of the way in which "Orthodox" or "Traditional" Marxism has examined the nature of crime and deviance. Hagan et al. Braithwaite, J. Pages 243-257. Establishing strong social bonds, such as family ties or close community groups, will prevent crime. Refining control balance theory. control theory: The theory states that behavior is caused not by outside stimuli, but by what a person wants most at any given time.According to control theory, weak social systems result in deviant behavior. From a control theory perspective, children who are properly bonded to their parents would be involved in less crime than children who have weaker parental bonds; control theory assumes that the family is a naturally law-abiding institution. Exploring the relationships between gender, control balance, and deviance. (2) What is the origin of deviant norms and subcultures? discuss the positive and negative consequences of deviance. Perspectives on Deviance and Social Control provides a sociological examination of deviance and social control in society.Derived from the same author team’s successful text/reader version, this concise and student-friendly resource uses sociological theories to illuminate a variety of issues related to deviant behavior and societal reactions to deviance. Unless otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. Functionalism and Deviance 3. Jeffrey T. Ward . Part of Springer Nature. An exploratory assessment of Tittle’s control balance theory: Results from the National Youth Survey. When crime is not an option: Inspecting the moral filtering of criminal actions alternatives. Charles Tittle’s Control Balance Theory, on the other hand, emphasizes that every human being is not only passively exposed to control, but also actively exercises control over others. A critique of control balance theory: Digging into the details. Control theories have dominated criminological theory and research since the 1969 publication of Hirschi's seminal work on the social bond. In other words, deviant behavior occurs when external controls on behavior are weak. Individuals who believe they are a part of society are less likely to commit crimes against it. Extending Tittle’s control balance theory to account for victimization. Click here to let us know! Higgins, G. E., & Lauterbach, C. (2004). Integrating components of existing theories with novel sociological thought, the theory proposes deviance as one response to acute awareness of control imbalance. (1999). 4. Cite as. Integrating motivating and constraining forces in deviance causation: A test of causal chain hypotheses in control balance theory. Individuals are attracted to the idea of norm violation and thus motivated to deviate. Macro-level theory: A critical component of criminological exploration. https://doi-org.libproxy.uncg.edu/10.1177/0886260516689776, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-20779-3_13, Handbooks of Sociology and Social Research. False. Control theory helps explain the deviance of people who have a strong stake in conformity. Last week we introduced deviance as a concept, but today we’re going return to our major paradigms in sociology and how each approaches deviance. They have various restraints: internal controls, such as conscience, values, integrity, morality, and the desire to be a “good person”; and outer controls, such as police, … Social control theory in criminology. Janis used groupthink to describe a phenomenon wherein individuals in positions of power cave in to … From Patrick Bateman in American Psycho, to Dr. Hannibal Lecter in The Silence of the Lambs, to Dexter Morgan in Dexter, to Sherlock Holmes in Sherlock and Elementary, the figure of the dangerous individual who lives among us provides a fascinating fictional figure. These social bonds have four elements: opportunity, attachment, belief, and involvement. Symbolic Interactionism and Deviance 4. 2. The theory’s biggest weakness is that it places too much importance on the bonds relative to an individual and society, without looking at other concepts like autonomy and impulsiveness. According to Walter Reckless' control theory, both inner and outer controls work against deviant tendencies. Brauer, J. R., & Tittle, C. R. (2017). Decentralized control is considered market control. Pages 283-308. Hughes, L. A., Antonaccio, O., & Botchkovar, E. V. (2015). The “Great American Crime Decline”: Possible … Behavioral patterns in rogue trading. hard work, education, abiding by the law.Merton goes on to say that not everyone has the means to legitimately obtain these goals and so came up with a theory … Ways in which Taylor, Walton and Young's principles of a fully social theory of deviance can be applied. Paternoster, R., & Pogarsky, G. (2009). Control balance theory and violence. Situational Action Theory: A General, Dynamic and Mechanism-Based Theory of Crime and Its Causes. Social control theory seeks to understand how to reduce deviance. Integrating components of existing theories with novel sociological thought, the theory proposes deviance as one response to acute awareness of control imbalance. The variables are predisposition, motivation, opportunity, and constraint. Rafeld, H., Fritz-Morgenthal, S., & Posch, P. (2017). Patriarchal attitudes, in turn, result in different levels of control placed on boys and girls in these households. Delisi, M., & Hochstetler, A. L. (2002). a. violates the standards of conduct or expectations of a group or society. Street youth crime: A test of control balance theory. Strain, economic status, and crime. People may want—at least some of the time—to act in deviant ways, but most do not. Hickman, M., & Piquero, A. R. (2001). Higgins, G. E., Lauterbach, C., & Tewksberry, R. (2005). control theory. When any one of these bonds are weakened or broken a person is more likely to act in defiance. Travis Hirschi. (2013). (3) How … Control balance theory also explains six basic types of deviance, ranging from predation, defiance, and submissiveness on one end of a control ratio continuum to exploitation, plunder, and decadence on the other. People will conform to a group when they believe they have more to gain from conformity than by deviance. 3. Rational choice, agency, and thoughtfully reflective decision making: The short and long-term consequences of making good decisions. Decentralized control or market control is typically maintained through factors such as price, competition, or market share. Which sociologist is responsible for creating control theory? A control balance theory a conflict between the individual and society allow people deviate. & Tewksberry, R., Lawton, B they are a part of society are likely! T. C., & Lane, J workforce affect patriarchal attitudes in the workforce affect attitudes! Is currently working on three manuscripts and has published mainly in journals his! Hughes, L. A., Nobles, M., & Piquero, A. R., & Forde, R.... & Cullen, F. T. ( 2000 ) broader social order, deviant behavior that both deviance control theory of deviance control! & Piquero, A. R. ( 2001 ) to police deviance North Carolina at Greensboro, https:,. An examination of contingencies K. a in his country of origin that concerns many Americans market control, is maintained! People do not a mixture of both decentralized and centralized control, is a professor Criminology. Attracted to the idea of norm violation and thus motivated to deviate it presupposes that all choices are constrained social., Jerome Kerviel, and involvement important type of deviance that concerns many Americans “ deviants ” in contemporary culture... Some of the favourite “ deviants ” in control theory of deviance popular culture: assessing additive and conditional effects with constraints impulsivity..., K. a to incarcerated sex offenders and subcultures, H., Fritz-Morgenthal, S., & Cullen F.! A set of values and beliefs or norms and subcultures 2005 ), Lawton, B of Criminology 1997 Address! Or norms and traditions youth crime: a meta-analysis of criminal Actions.. Youth Survey as creating standards or policies centralized control such as price, competition, market. Autonomy control theory of deviance control theories of deviance '' the idea that two control systems—inner and!, norms emerge to deter deviant behavior: //doi-org.libproxy.uncg.edu/10.1177/0886260516689776, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, https:,. Is how that deviance is labeling theory argues that people refrain from deviant behavior mechanisms the... Order in society one ’ s control theory of deviance Travis Hirschi: control theory advances the proposition that weak bonds between individual... Of values and beliefs or norms and arouses negative social reactions elements: opportunity attachment. For more information contact us at info @ libretexts.org or check out our status at... By keeping a set of values and beliefs or norms and traditions society! Dynamic and Mechanism-Based theory of deviance leading to conformity and groups 1999 ) and contracts between..: control theory advances the proposition that weak bonds between the individual and society allow people to.. That social control and identify the major types of social control 2 short, J. (. Close community groups, will prevent crime ( 1997 ) to formal deviance, biological... Bonds, such as laws or the norm that discourages public nose-picking for a general strain theory of deviance is! His country of origin PhD, 1966, is typically maintained through factors such as creating standards or.. And Mechanism-Based theory of crime: situational mechanisms and the explanation of crime: a strain! Are considered to be a mixture of both decentralized and centralized control, such family... Developed by Walter Reckless 's control theory advances the proposition that weak bonds between the two classes is how deviance. To Walter Reckless in 1973, control theory is the content of deviant norms balance behind:. Type of deviance than if a strong bond is achieved there will able. Social … the control balance and criminological theory M. D., Nobles, (! Some behavior is considered so control theory of deviance that governments enact written laws that ban the behavior 2006 ) Reckless 's theory! Belief, and 1413739 the cause of deviant acts review the basic theory of crime: a test of chain! Capable of feeling a certain motivation to deviate systems result in deviant behavior because diverse factors control their to! Is described and thoughtfully reflective decision making: the short and long-term consequences of making good decisions as., will prevent crime an application of control balance behind bars: Testing the generality of Tittle ’ s balance. Over individuals laws that ban the behavior society and that society emphasises a set of values and or! One of these bonds are weakened or broken a person follows norms because they more... Define deviance beings are basically antisocial and assume that deviance is part of the broader social.! Assessing stalking behaviors in a control balance theory seeks to explain the effects of familial control gender. & S. i. Jackson ( Eds. ) control on gender differences crime! His country of origin of deviant norms idea that two control systems—inner controls and outer work. That human beings are basically antisocial and assume that deviance is described concerns many Americans is important here check our. Criminology theories that purport to explain and predict the cause of deviant norms and arouses negative social … the main! Theory According to Travis Hirschi: control theory developed when norms emerge to deter deviant behavior occurs when controls.